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January 20, 2021.

Hello, dear blog readers KtonanovenKogo.ru. Monopoly is the economic situation in the market when the whole industry Controls the only one Manufacturer (or seller).

Production and trade of goods or the provision of services belongs to one company, which is also called a monopoly or Monopolist . The subject has no competitors, as a result, the company has a certain power and can dictate the conditions to customers.

Monopoly

Examples of monopoly

The word "monopoly" originated in ancient Greece and in translation denotes "one sell".

The determination of a monopoly implies the existence of a business niche where One manufacturer dominates which regulates the amount of goods and its price.

In the pure form, the monopolist companies are very rare. This is due to the fact that for almost any product or service you can find a substitute.

For example, Natural monopoly is the metro . If the subway infrastructure is divided between the two-three competing firms, this chaos will begin. But when the metro services will cease to arrange the population, people will be able to get to the destination on buses, trams, cars, electric traits.

That is, the metro is a monopolist among underground, high-speed transport, but in the sphere of passenger traffic he is not.

State of the economy in which One subject dominates , typical for housing and communal services, public sector, production of products requiring careful control.

Examples of natural monopolies

Considering what a monopoly is, one cannot bypass the side of another close concept - "oligopoly". This state is found in the economy much more often. Oligopol market Make several companies. When conspicing the main players, the market in their characteristics is approaching the monopoly (example - cellular operators).

Classic examples of oligopoly - aircraft and shipbuilding, production of weapons. Here competition (what is it?) Occurs between two, three suppliers.

Types and forms of monopolies

The following forms of monopolies are distinguished:

  1. Natural - It occurs when the business brings profit in the long run only when servicing the entire market. Example - Rail transportation. Usually, economic activity requires high costs at the initial stage.
  2. Artificial - usually created when combining several companies. Credit enterprises allows you to quickly eliminate competitors. The educated structure resorts to such methods as dumping (what is it?) Prices, economic boycott, price maneuvering, industrial espionage, securities.
  3. Closed - protected from competitors by law. Restrictions may concern copyright, patents (what is it?), Licensing, certification, taxation, transfer of unique rights to possession and use of resources, etc.
  4. Open - This is the market of the only supplier who has no legal obstacles from competition. It is characteristic of firms offering new, innovative products that have no analogues at the moment.
  5. Double-sided - Marketplace with one seller and one buyer. Both sides have power over the market. As a result, the result of the transaction depends on the ability to negotiate by each participant.

There are other options for classification, for example, they are divided into two types. in the form of ownership :

  1. Private
  2. State

Or By territorial The principle of 4 types:

  1. local
  2. Regional
  3. National
  4. Exterritoring (Global)

If we consider an artificial monopoly when a number of enterprises (companies) are combined, they say About various forms of such mergers :

Molds of monopoly

Monopoly in the history of the Company's development

The benefits of monopoly people noticed almost immediately with the advent of the exchange and the emergence of market relations. In the absence of competition, prices can be raised.

Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle considered the creation of a monopoly by the skillful policy of managing the economy. In one of the works, as an example, the sage tells about the subject who received the money "in growth". To retrieve profits, an enterprising person bought all iron in workshops, and then resell him with extra charge merchants who arrived from other places.

The thinker mentions about the attempts by regulating the state of monopoly. The earliest seller was sent by the government from Sicily.

In European countries In the Middle Ages, monopolism developed in two directions - as a result of creating shops and by issuing royal privileges:

  1. Shop - This is an union of artisans. He controlled the production of products of participants. The main task of the organization was to create conditions for the existence of workshops. The workshops did not allow competitors to their markets and installed market prices for produced goods.
  2. Royal privileges Gave the exclusive right to sell or produce certain types of products (services). The merchants and industrialists were glad to get such a privilege to get rid of competitors, and the king received money in the treasury. At the same time, many royal decrees were absurd and stupid, which led to the restriction of the power of the monarchy in some countries.

In the 19th century, as a result of the rapid development of production, a competitive struggle was aggravated between manufacturers. Cost reduction led to the consolidation of factories and plants. Remaining players Communicated in various communities (Trusts, Syndicates, Pools), which acted as monopolists.

Monopolies in the history of Russia are the repetition of global trends. But most of the processes in our country were late and were often brought from the outside. So, in Tsarist Russia, the production of alcoholic beverages was exclusively a state function.

And the first industrial syndicate Aged in St. Petersburg in 1886 with the participation of German partners. He united 6 companies producing nails and wire. Later, sugar syndicate was born, then "selling", "product", "roofing", "copper", "extension" and others.

Causes of monopolism

The desire for monopolization of the market is normal for any business. It is laid in the very nature of entrepreneurial activity, the main purpose of which is to obtain maximum profits. Monopolies are created both natural and artificially.

Additional factors contributing to the development of monopolism, can be:

  1. large spending on creating a business that do not pay off in a competitive environment;
  2. Establishment by the government of legislative barriers to conduct activities - certification, licensing, distribution of quotas;
  3. Protectionism policy (what is it?), Protecting domestic producers from foreign competitors;
  4. Enlarging firms as a result of absorption and merger.

Antimonopoly legislation

Lack of competition leads to negative consequences in society:

  1. ineffective resource spending;
  2. Product deficit;
  3. unfair income distribution;
  4. The absence of an incentive to develop new technologies.

Therefore, governments are trying Limit the appearance of monopoly . Special state authorities monitor the level of competition in the market, control prices, prevent the dependence of small firms from large players.

Antimonopoly legislation exists in most countries of the world. It protects the interests of consumers and contributes to economic prosperity.

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What is monopoly

Consider the question of what a monopoly is and what is its characteristic features. "Mono" means a unit, and "poly" means the seller. Thus, the monopoly refers to a market situation in which there is only one seller of a particular product.

This means that the company itself is a branch, and its product has no close replacement. The monopolist is not concerned about the reaction of competing parties, since he has no competitors. Thus, the demand curve facing a monopoly group coincides with the industry's demand curve.

Can there be a complete monopoly in the real commercial world? Some economists believe that, supporting some entrance barriers, the firm can act as the sole seller of the product in a particular industry.

Others believe that all products compete for a limited consumer budget. For example, in the case of development and creation of website sites It is impossible to become a monopolist, since there is a huge set of proposals on this issue.

What is a monopoly of the state

Now pay attention and tell about what is a monopoly of the state and what it applies. In the economy, it is one of the forms of monopoly, in which the government or state corporation is the only supplier of certain goods or services and competition is prohibited by law.

Government monopoly can be managed by any level - federal, regional, local. It aims to implement goods of mass consumption. For the most part, the state prerogative applies to: media, education, alcohol, tobacco, banking, etc.

In the Scandinavian countries, some products that are considered "harmful" extend through the state prerogative. For example, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, state-owned companies have privileges for the sale of alcoholic beverages. Casino and other gambling institutions can also be monopolized. In Finland, her peculiar corporate identity is State monopoly on the operation of slot machines.

In conclusion, once again let's say about the distinctive features of the monopoly market:

  • One manufacturer or seller;
  • Lack of close substitutes;
  • Absolute control over the market proposal;
  • Lack of competitive advertising;
  • Equilibrium firms and industries.

History of origin

The term "monopoly" has Greek roots: it is formed from the words "Mono" - "one" and "Poleo" - "sell". The same economic policy, aimed at the active replacement of competitors from the market, originated almost simultaneously with the advent of commodity exchange.

But if there is an antitrust policy today in all developed countries of the world, and the seizure of the market is considered to be undesirable for the economy and even dangerous for society, in the ancient world, such economic practice has not been denied.

The effectiveness of the monopoly in ancient Greece proved Fales Miretsky. He predicted on the stars of a large harvest olives. And in winter, he leased all the oils on Chios and in a millet. And when a rich harvest was collected, dramatically raised the price for their use. The farmers were forced to use oils, despite the overestimated price. And Fales Miletsky himself is not only rich, but also clearly showed how profitable the strategy of the monopolist.

A vivid example of an oldest monopoly is a Novocardgensky mine of the Hett kings. It was Hettites first invented a method for processing iron and steel production. And since in II B to AD. Iron was worth 5 times more than gold, to produce both areas of deposits and secrets of production, the rulers were not going to.

One of the first state monopolies can be called the Central Bank of Ancient Egypt, created by the Ptolemyev dynasty in the III century BC. His departments worked across the country: collected taxes for the state, exchanged currency and paid a salary. At the same time, in the country, no other organizations were allowed to carry out banking operations, which made it possible to focus all the cash flows in the hands of Ptolemyev.

Monopolization of the global economy

And yet, when it comes to the development of monopolies, the most vivid examples of economists advise to seek not in ancient times, but at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries. It was during this period that humanity first encountered the concept of global monopolization.

Monopolization is the process of establishing a monopoly. It includes the elimination of competition and assigning the largest player of the exclusive right to carry out any activity.

Market monopolization is the situation in the industry, when the largest producer or seller captures most of the market and gets the opportunity to influence the price level and production.

The monopolization of the economy is a complete lack of competition or an extremely low level in all sectors of the economy within one state.

In recent decades of the XIX century, manual labor around the world has been actively supplanted cars, production volumes steadily grew, and together with them the size of the enterprises themselves. When several large players were on the market, competition businessmen became unprofitable. It is much easier to agree among themselves: to designate the scope of influence and establish a favorable price.

Such arrangements led to the creation of monopolies of various forms:

  • Ring or Corner is a temporary agreement on a single sales policy;
  • Syndicate - Association, acting on a long-term basis. Participants preserve legal independence, but the distribution of orders is carried out centrally;
  • Pool is a type of syndicate. The pool participants not only adhere to a single pricing policy, but also create a common cashier, the profit of which is distributed according to shares;
  • Kittel - an association in which each enterprise retains both industrial and financial independence, negotiating the level of prices, production and geographical section market;
  • Trust is a complete merger of companies with the creation of a single manager authority.

Despite the uniform temporary framework, in each country monopolization had its own characteristic features. In the US, industrialists actively united into trusts, and one of the first was monopolized by oil business. Educated in the 70s of the XIX century, the company "Standard Oil" by the beginning of the new century focused in his hands 90% of sales. Following it, one after another, representatives of sugar, textile, tobacco, electrical industries united. And at the beginning of the 20th century it became obvious: if the state does not intervene, the small business in key industries will cease to exist, nothing will prevent large players to set prices, many times greater than the market, and they will suffer from this the most unprotected segments of the population.

In Germany, the beginning of the monopolization process provoked the crisis of 1873. The population is bent, due to the decline in demand, prices were rapidly falling, and manufacturers, seeking to avoid bankruptcy, were looking for protection from the state. And it gave goodness in the form of protection for the creation of cartels and syndicates. The first German monopolies were formed not by several largest players, but many small enterprises. Sometimes the cartel counted up to 200 participants! For example, Rhine-Westphalian coal syndicate in just 7 years united 95% of representatives of its industry. It was profitable to work together, and therefore for several decades a monopoly in Germany was formed even in those spheres that remained competitive players in any other corner of the world. A bright example is a calendar cartel.

The purpose of supporting monopolies by the authorities was not so much concern for entrepreneurs as the desire to conquer foreign markets. And such a policy justified itself: it was very soon that the whole world spoke about the Siemens technique and the largest shipping company Severogherman Lloyd. In just 40 years, Germany increased the production of industrial products 6 times, and became the second industrial power of the world, passing forward only the United States.

The process of globalization of enterprises in France and Great Britain has led to the rapid growth of industry. Thanks to the monopolization, the Renault automotive company and the world's largest monopoly on the production of weapons and Vickers warships were created. It is not surprising that at first monopolization was perceived by ruling circles exclusively in a positive line. And only in time will become obvious: without tight regulation from the state of the monopoly literally destroys the industry. To increase profits instead of reduced costs, the monopolist raises prices, with a decrease in demand artificially causes a deficit, and in the development of technologies and improving the quality of goods is not interested at all without pressure from competitors.

Monopolization in Russia

The process of global monopolization did not go around Russia. But at the time, entitledes of associations in Europe and the United States were entrepreneurs, in Russia, cartels and syndicates were created in those spheres that were particularly important for the state. In order to maintain control over them and maximize the development of industry at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries under the sensitive leadership of state bodies, kartels and syndicates were created in metallurgy and mechanical engineering, shipping and transport industry, in oil production and banking.

At first, the role of monopolies in the domestic economy was small, although already in the 1980s of the XIX century, at least 50 associations operated on the territory of the country, which, even by the standards of a huge power, not very little. But the real boom of globalization ran immediately after the economic crisis of 1900-1903. Monopolies, one after another, captured all new industries. It threatened the global redistribution of capital in the country, and settling it in the hands of industrialists.

Formally, the state responded to the situation: a direct ban on the creation of monopoly unions appeared in criminal legislation. But at the same time, many of them, for example, "PRODOPAROVOS", "ORDERSOYUZ", "PROM'NAGE" acted with direct financial support from the authorities.

Officially, participants in the cartels and syndicates were listed by joint-stock companies, and their activities were regulated by the unlawful treaties. Moreover, the same enterprise could be included simultaneously in several cartels. So there were monopolies "Copper", "Roofing", "Wire", "Production", "Thinking". In early XX century, about 200 syndicates operated in Russia.

What is the essence of monopoly

To better understand what the essence of the monopoly should be transferred to the key features of the monopoly market. When monopoly, the company fully controls the delivery of the product. There is one seller or a manufacturer of a particular product, and there is no difference between the company and the industry. The demand curve on the monopoly market has a slope down, which means that the firm can get more profit only by increasing sales, which are possible due to the reduction in the product price.

The monopolist is the only seller of a specific product. Therefore, if you think to develop your project on Business ideas 2020 , the monopolist you can hardly be able to. Therefore, if the monopolist should receive super-profile in the long run, there must be certain barriers to the entry of new firms in the industry.

Such barriers may relate to any force that prevents the penetration of competing companies (competing producers) to the industry. Such barriers to monopolist against the invasion of other firms using Business ideas for women Or men can be both natural and artificial (legal). In fact, the input barrier can take various forms.

Causes of monopolism

The desire for monopolization of the market is normal for any business. It is laid in the very nature of entrepreneurial activity, the main purpose of which is to obtain maximum profits. Monopolies are created both natural and artificially.

Additional factors contributing to the development of monopolism, can be:

  1. large spending on creating a business that do not pay off in a competitive environment;
  2. Establishment of legislative barriers to activities - certification, licensing, distribution of quotas </ span>;
  3. Protectionism policy (what is it?), Protecting domestic producers from foreign competitors;
  4. Enlarging firms as a result of absorption and merger.

Characteristics of monopoly

There are two approaches to the concept of a monopoly. First, the monopoly can be viewed as a type of organization. It is a major association of enterprises, which occupies a leading position in a certain branch of the economy or in several industries in a country or in the world as a whole. Usually a monopoly is associated with large and well-known world companies, although they can keep a minor part of the market.

But there may be another interpretation of the concept of a monopoly - this is the economic behavior of the company. A situation is possible on the market when buyers are opposed to an entrepreneur monopolist, which produces the bulk of products of a certain species. In this case, the monopoly may be relatively small in size and on the contrary, a large company may not be a monopoly if its share in this market is small.

Turning to the monopolist as the type of economic structure of the market, it should be considered as a certain type of economic relations, which makes it possible to dictate its conditions on the market of a particular product.

The monopoly suggests that there is only one manufacturer in the industry, which fully controls the volume of product supply.

This allows it to set the price that will bring maximum profits.

The degree of use of monopoly authorities In the establishment of the price will depend on the presence of close substitutes of the product. If the product is unique, the buyer is forced to pay the appointed price or refuse to buy.

Monopolist's company usually has a higher profit That, naturally, attracts in the industry of other manufacturers. In the case of a pure monopolist, obstacles to the industry are large enough, and it practically blocks the penetration of competitors to the monopolized market. These are really significant obstacles on the path of possible competitors of monopolists.

Examples of monopoly

The word "monopoly" originated in ancient Greece and in translation denotes "one sell".

The determination of a monopoly implies the existence of a business niche where One manufacturer dominates which regulates the amount of goods and its price.

In the pure form, the monopolist companies are very rare. This is due to the fact that for almost any product or service you can find a substitute.

For example, Natural monopoly is the metro . If the subway infrastructure is divided between the two-three competing firms, this chaos will begin. But when the metro services will cease to arrange the population, people will be able to get to the destination on buses, trams, cars, electric traits.

That is, the metro is a monopolist among underground, high-speed transport, but in the sphere of passenger traffic he is not.

State of the economy in which One subject dominates , typical for housing and communal services, public sector, production of products requiring careful control.

Considering what a monopoly is, one cannot bypass the side of another close concept - "oligopoly". This state is found in the economy much more often. Oligopol market Make several companies. When conspicing the main players, the market in their characteristics is approaching the monopoly (example - cellular operators).

Classic examples of oligopoly - aircraft and shipbuilding, production of weapons. Here competition (what is it?) Occurs between two, three suppliers.

Types and forms of monopolies

The following forms of monopolies are distinguished:

  1. Natural - It occurs when the business brings profit in the long run only when servicing the entire market. Example - Rail transportation. Usually, economic activity requires high costs at the initial stage.
  2. Artificial - usually created when combining several companies. Credit enterprises allows you to quickly eliminate competitors. The educated structure resorts to such methods as dumping (what is it?) Prices, economic boycott, price maneuvering, industrial espionage, securities.
  3. Closed - protected from competitors by law. Restrictions may concern copyright, patents (what is it?), Licensing, certification, taxation, transfer of unique rights to possession and use of resources, etc.
  4. Open - This is the market of the only supplier who has no legal obstacles from competition. It is characteristic of firms offering new, innovative products that have no analogues at the moment.
  5. Double-sided - Marketplace with one seller and one buyer. Both sides have power over the market. As a result, the result of the transaction depends on the ability to negotiate by each participant.

There are other options for classification, for example, they are divided into two types. in the form of ownership :

  1. Private
  2. State

Or By territorial The principle of 4 types:

  1. local
  2. Regional
  3. National
  4. Exterritoring (Global)

If we consider an artificial monopoly when a number of enterprises (companies) are combined, they say About various forms of such mergers :

Types of monopolies in the form of ownership

Depending on the affiliation of the business entity, state and private monopolies are distinguished. State monopolies are firms that are formed and operate under the full control of the government. The state regulator monitors the quality of products or services, sets prices or tariffs, determines the volume of production.

In Russia, the exclusive right to exercise economic activities has a state in such industries:

  • cash issuance;
  • production of ethyl alcohol;
  • Production and sale of narcotic and psychotropic substances;
  • weapons;
  • electric power;
  • gas industry;
  • disposal of natural resources;
  • Oil refining industry.

The state monopoly may be partial if only production is taken under control or sales only. But it also happens complete when state bodies control all organizational processes from beginning to end.

A private or entrepreneurial monopoly is created solely in the interests of the business. And, like any entrepreneurial activity, acts at their own risk. The driving force of the entrepreneurial monopoly is to get maximum profits.

Types of monopolies on scale

And the owner of the only thing in the village of the Club, and the owner of the license for the development of the Essentuksky field - monopolists. That's just the level of their influence is completely different. Therefore, monopolies are customary to classify scale:

  • Local or local monopoly. Operates in the framework of one area, the village, city. Examples are the only college in a small district center, the only shopping store in the village;
  • Regional monopoly. Here we are talking about seizing the market in one or several areas, autonomous districts. For example, the supply of electricity in each corner of Russia is carried out by regional energy supplying organizations: "Far Eastern Energy Company" in Primorsky Krai, "Energosbyt Plus" in the Samara Region, Bashkirenergo in the Republic of Bashkortostan;
  • National monopoly. The seller or manufacturer occupies an exceptional position within one separately taken state. In the gas industry, Russia is Gazprom, in rail transport - Russian Railways;
  • World or exterritorial monopoly. These are international and transnational companies that dictate the conditions of the game in the markets of several countries and even continents. Example: Microsoft Corporation in the production and implementation of operating systems. Despite the existence of alternatives (Apple et al.), Microsoft takes such a fraction of a global market that allows companies to dictate their conditions to consumers.

Types of monopolies by nature of influence

Not always the position of the monopolist is steadily and reliable. In many ways it depends on what fraction of the company the company managed to capture:

  • Absolute monopoly. The ideal situation at which competitors have completely absent from the monopolist. There are no close substitute for goods on the market, and the entrance to the industry is blocked - most often legally.
  • Relative monopoly. Only one market segment is monopolized, for example, by agreement with the nearest competitors. So, in the case of private transport, the company agrees between the distribution of urban routes. And it turns out that on the one hand the carrier is a monopolist on his route, on the other - its position of Zybko and may change at any time.

Types of monopolies by origin

Monopolies are also formed differently.

1 Natural monopoly. It is formed by itself. Just because the availability of several services that provide the service is economically impractical. For example, in a tiny town there is no need for two cinemas. Liabating the public from each other, they both will come to bankruptcy, since the cost of maintaining the hall is high, and the demand is too small, and there is not the slightest chance to significantly increase it.

Examples of the natural monopoly are metro lines and community routes. It seems absurd even the very idea of ​​servicing the same areas of movement by competing companies. Yes, several trolleybus parks can work in the city, but they will certainly be divided among themselves.

For the end user, competition in such areas is undesirable.

2 Artificial monopoly. If there is no objective reasons for the establishment of leadership in the industry, but there is no competition, it is a monopoly man-made, or artificial. You can create it in several ways. For example, just boring all small firms on takeoff. Or developing unique equipment, which no one else has no more.

To contribute to the emergence of an artificial monopoly may state with the help of benefits or subsidies, issuing a license to a single player, providing advantageous loans under the guarantees of the state or liberation from paying taxes.

An example of an artificial monopoly can be the company "Mosgortrans". Despite higher tariffs than in single small carriers, the absence of the desire to update the fleet and numerous complaints of carriers, the company has been a monopolist for many years exclusively, thanks to the promotion of the city authorities.

Types of monopolies according to the formation method

The birth of a monopoly always goes one of three scenarios:

  1. Economic monopoly. The initial purpose of the management of such companies is to achieve the effect of scale. And let it have to be united with competitors, absorb ineffective firms by spending millions on it, or even billions of rubles. The main thing is the result: the benefits of merge, synergy, super-profile and domination in their industry.
  2. Organizational monopoly. If the previous method suggests officially legalized mergers, the organizational monopoly is more likely to have cunning. Legally, economic entities remain independent, but in fact they lead a single policy of development, hold prices at the right level, share sales regions. These are the most trusts, syndicates, cartels, who in modern society received the names of holdings and financial and industrial groups. Recognizing the organizational monopoly is sometimes not possible immediately. For example, standing at a rack with sunglasses, you are unlikely to think about what is ready to make a purchase from a monopolist. After all, you have such a variety of brands: Armani and Chanel, Valentino and Ralph Lauren, Ray-Ban and Vogue. I have a hurry to upset you: they are all, and at least 20 brands glasses are produced by Luxottica Group. And such an abundance of trademarks is only the desire to create visibility of competition.
  3. Technological monopoly. The most noble and respected in society the way to achieve leadership in the industry is to create a unique product or develop new technology. Technological monopoly - formation fragile. Rarely when the term of its existence is more than 2-3 years. Fashion passes on yesterday's novelty, a decent goods-substitute or competitors appear to represent the world an even more advanced model.

Types of monopolies for the term of existence

The length of the monopolies can be different: some corporations hold the advantage on the hundred years market, others have been unable to confront competition.

The first type of monopolies is called constant. They, as a rule, have support from the state. Private companies without protection in the authorities it is difficult to remain the only representatives in the industry. Therefore, among them most of the temporary monopolies.

Types of monopolies on the field of activity

Just like any other business entity, a monopoly may be:

  • production;
  • trade;
  • financial;
  • intermediary;
  • Monopoly services.

Often, expanding, the monopolist is not limited to one sphere of activity. For example, Lockheed Martin Corporation, which owns 95% of the US Arms Market, not only develops and manufactures weapons, military equipment, but also engaged in airport logistics, electronic and information systems.

Types of monopolies to protect against competitors

  • Open monopoly. This is the result of the company's efforts: the conclusion of a merger contracts, the invention of innovative technology, the skillful use of marketing, and the conclusion to the product-novelty market. Unfortunately for the owners, such a monopoly is always temporary: at any time a competitor can release a substitute or a full-fledged product analogue, wait for the completion of the patent, to unite with other companies in the fight against the leader. At the same time, the monopolist is not protected from such a situation. Nevertheless, it is an open monopoly that brings, albeit in the short or medium term, companies are cherished billions.
  • Closed monopoly. Its existence, as a rule, supports the state, fencing from any encroachment of competitors. Examples of closed monopoly - Russian Railways, OJSC Mosgaz, Mosvodokanal OJSC. These are stable structures that seem to have always existed, and there will be a long time. At the same time, the closed monopolies most often do not bring super-profits: instead of exceptional rights, the state maintains control and regarding the price level, and in relation to the profit rate.

Natural monopoly

Natural monopoly arises due to objective reasons. It reflects the situation when demand This product is best satisfied with one or more firms. It is based on - features of production and maintenance technologies consumers . Here competition It is impossible or undesirable. An example is the energy supply, telephone services, communication. In these industries there is a limited number, if not the only national enterprise, and therefore, naturally, they occupy a monopoly position in the market.

The main signs of the natural monopolist are the following:

- the activities of the subjects of natural monopolists are more efficient in the absence of competition, which is associated with significant savings on the scale of production and high conditionally constant Costs . Such areas include, for example, transport. Costs on the Delivery the cargo or the transport of one passenger is lower than the more goods or passengers are transported in this direction;

- high market entry barriers, since the fixed costs associated with the construction of such structures as roads, links, so highly that the company such a parallel system performing the same functions (construction of roads and pipeline or gasket of railway canvas is unlikely) can pay off;

- Lowest elasticity of demand, since the demand for products or services produced by the subjects of a natural monopolist, to a lesser extent depends on the price change than the demand for other types of products (services), since they are not possible to replace with other goods. This product satisfies the most important needs of the population or other industries. Such goods include, for example, electricity. If we offer, the rise in prices for cars will force many consumers Refuse to acquire your own car, and they will use public transport, even a significant increase in electricity tariffs is unlikely to lead to a refusal of its consumption, since it is difficult to replace it with an equivalent energy carrier.

There are two types of natural monopolists:

- Natural monopolist. The birth of such monopolists is due to barriers to competition, erected by nature itself. For example, a monopoly can be a company whose geologists found a deposit of unique minerals and which bought the rights to the land plot where this deposit is located. Now no one else uses the field to use: the law protects the rights of the owner, even if it turned out to be a monopoly (which does not exclude the regulatory intervention of the state in the activities of such a monopoly);

- Technical and economic monopolist. So conventionally, you can call a monopolist, the occurrence of which is dictated by either technical or economic reasons associated with the manifestation of the effect of scale.

Let's say it is technically almost impossible, or rather, extremely irrational, the creation in the city of two sewage networks, gas supply or electricity to apartments. The attempt is not always rational, the cables of two competing telephone firms in the same city, especially since they would still have to constantly access each other's services, when the client of one network would call the client another.

The largest large-scale monopolists are usually energy and transport, where the effect of scale is particularly pushing to an increase in the size of the company for the decline in average costs for the production of goods. Really, this manifests itself in the fact that the creation in such industries instead of one largest monopolist firma slightly smaller can lead to an increase in production costs and in the end - not to a decrease, but to increase prices. And in this society, naturally, is not interested.

Russia did not avoid the negative impact of industries - natural monopolists in the market conditions. In the Russian industry there are four thousand enterprises-monopolis and their products are 7% of the total. Of these, natural monopolists - 500.

With a general reduction in production in the Russian Federation, the demand for products and services of industries - natural monopolists, with the exception of branches of communication, constantly decreased. These industries are extremely capital-intensive, a significant part of their costs is constant. As a result, the share of permanent costs in the price of a unit of products grew. In addition, until recently, the subjects of natural monopolists financed investments largely due to internal sources (investment and stabilization funds, formed at the expense of the initial cost and profit ), which determined excessive load on tariffs.

Administrative monopoly

Administrative monopoly arises due to the actions of state bodies. On the one hand, this is the provision of exclusive rights to individual firms to fulfill a certain kind of activity. On the other hand, these are organizational structures for state-owned enterprises, when they combine and obey different chapters, ministries, associations.

Here, as a rule, enterprises of one industry are grouped. They act on the market as one economic entity, and there is no competition between them. The economy of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (CCCP) belonged to the most monopolized in the world. The dominant there was an administrative monopoly, first of all the monopoly of the Ministries and departments. Moreover, there was an absolute monopoly of the state to the company and the management of the economy, which was based on the dominant state ownership of the means of production.

In other economic literature, the state monopoly is allocated. The existence of state monopolists in the market of specific goods and services is caused by both the natural monopolism of individual state-owned enterprises and government limitations of the influx of new firms in any industry (for example, in the field of export-import operations of strategically important goods, etc.) ..

Unlike a perfect competitor who takes a market price as this from the outside, the monopoly itself determines its prices, based on the volume of market demand and the magnitude of their costs. Market monopolization leads, as a rule, to a relative reduction in production volumes and higher market prices for goods and services sold by monopolist. That is why in all developed countries of the world, the state holds a more or less rigid policy of regulating the activities of monopolists, especially natural, and promoting competition for the market.

Economic monopoly

The economic monopoly is the most common. Its appearance is due to economic reasons, it develops on the basis of the laws of economic development. We are talking about entrepreneurs who managed to conquer the monopoly position on the market. Two ways lead to him:

- the first is to successfully develop an enterprise, a constant increase in its scale by concentrating capital;

- The second (faster) is based on the process of centralization of capital, that is, on a voluntary association of enterprises or takeover by the winners of bankrupt. Those or another or with both both, the company reaches such a scale when it starts to dominate the market.

On this issue, there are two points of view on this issue of the emergence of monopolists in economic literature. According to the first monopolism, it is interpreted as a random, not peculiar to the market economy. As for another point of view, monopolistic formations are defined as natural. The principle of economic income makes enterprises constantly look for opportunities to increase their profits. One of them, most attractive and reliable, is the creation or achievement of a monopoly position. Other driving force Businessmen In this direction is the law of concentration of production and capital. As you know, the effect of this law is observed at all stages of the development of market relations.

His propulsion is a competitive struggle. To survive in such a struggle, get big profits, businessmen are forced to introduce new techniques, increase production. At the same time, somewhat larger are separated from the mass of medium and small enterprises. When this happens, the largest businessmen arises an alternative to: or to continue withdrawal of unprofitable competition, or to come to an agreement on the scale of production, prices, sales markets.

Absolute monopoly

The absolute monopolist is characterized by state regulation, all the processes occurring in the market are in authorities .

The absolute monopoly has the following features:

- one manufacturer operates on the market, he independently establishes prices for products that sells, and fully controls all trading activities and market transactions;

- If a monopolist with absolute power is operating on the market, other organizations are out of competition: the market access is closed;

- the movement of labor and other resources and factors of production are structured in nature, their mobility is limited;

- production of monopoly is absolutely unique and has no analogues and, moreover, it has trademark </ b>;

- With absolute power, the monopolist has the full right to regulate the pricing process. As a result, the cost of a unit of products is exactly as much as it is necessary to fill the loss of unique resources that were used in production.

Pure monopoly

The pure monopoly assumes the presence of a large enterprise, which is concentrated on a certain industry. In this case, the emergence of competitors on the market is almost impossible, and the monopolist fully controls the movement of the goods produced in the market and the price level on it.

Characteristic features of this situation are: the uniqueness of the goods, the ownership of the main types of raw materials, low average costs, patent rights, special privileges ( Licenses ). Pure monopolist usually occur there, where there are no alternatives to this product or service, there are no close substitutes.

For a clean monopolist, a high level of prices is characterized, the further growth of which is constrained only by the risk of decline in demand.

Clean monopolist include the provision of utilities, gas, water and power supply.

In the case of a pure monopolist seller It has a very high degree of price control. Seller It can act as a state and private adjustable or unregulated monopoly.

Legal monopolies

Legal (legitimate) monopolist are formed on the basis of the laws adopted by the State. These include a number of monopoly associations of enterprises based on patent law. The patent is a testimony issued by the government by the Citizen's government for the right to exclusive use of the invention.

Validity Patent It is established by national legislation (as a rule for 15-20 years). Owner Patent It has the right to issue permission to use the patented invention to other persons. In this case, it receives a certain proportion of benefits from the use of its invention.

Monopolist arising on the basis of copyright, according to which intelligent owners receive the exclusive right to sell or replicate their works throughout their life or some kind Period .

Tradingmarks are evidenced about accessories for legal monopolists - special drawings, names, symbols that allow you to identify (identify) a product, service or organization (other persons are prohibited to use registered trademarks).

Artificial monopolies

Under this conditional name, there is a union that has no legal protection from competitors. In order to obtain their own gains, such a monopoly deliberately changes the market structure:

- creates barriers to entering the sectoral market of new firms;

- limits outsiders (enterprises that have not entered the monopolistic association of enterprises) access to sources of raw materials and energy carriers </ b>;

- creates very high (compared with new firms) technology level;

- achieves greater production efficiency by increasing its scale;

- "scores" new companies well delivered advertising.

The concept of natural monopoly

Under the natural monopolist is understood as the state of the commodity market, in which the satisfaction of demand in this market is more efficient under the conditions of lack of competition due to the technological features of production (due to a significant decrease in production costs per unit of product as part of an increase in production volumes), and goods (services), which are produced by the subjects of natural monopolists, cannot be replaced in consumption by other goods (services), in connection with which the demand for this product market is less dependent on the price changes for these goods (services) than the demand for other goods (services).

What are dangerous monopolies?

The giant company seeks only to one: to keep the monopoly power, because it is a guarantee of the production of super profits. Such a selfish position brings many inconvenience to society. Cons of the monopolistic market:

  • Heavy prices. If we are talking about business monopoly, no one has the right to dictate to business, which trade markup to him to install. And often she is ten times higher than they could be in a competitive environment;
  • Lack of incentive to improve the quality of the goods. This simply makes no sense: if the buyer needs a service, he will acquire it guaranteed, since alternatives do not exist;
  • Creating an artificial deficit. To justify overestimated prices, the monopolist can reduce production. The demand for unique goods is growing, and the leader's company again receives super-profile.

The presence of only one company in the market - the situation is unfavorable not only for consumers. Young firms Even if there are innovative developments and more loyal pricing policies, they simply do not have the opportunity to take their niche. Monopolies displacing them from the market by any legal and illegal methods. As a result: the lack of industry development as a whole and a negative impact on the state economy.

Pluses of monopoly

But not always the situation develops through the gloomy scenario. In some cases, on the contrary, it is due to major corporations the economy can make a powerful jerk forward. Benefits of monopolies:

  • Unified production standards. Combating entrepreneurs still thinking on a global scale and operate on perspective. Many corporations have developed uniform quality standards for the execution of which they follow at each stage of production. As a result, the consumer no longer buys a "cat in a bag", and his ideas about the product fully corresponds to reality;
  • The ability to optimize production. Automated technological lines, alas, due to their high costs are not available to small business. Therefore, only major players can satisfy the tremendous demand for standardized goods. They accelerate the production process, increase the volume, thereby not allowing the deficit. Result: price reduction for the end user;
  • Participation in scientific research and development. The monopolies have everything to have a positive effect on the development of the industry: huge financial opportunities, the best specialists, often - the protection of the state.

The monopolist company in any case has a huge impact on the state of the industry, and the state economy as a whole. But here it will be: destructive or favorable, depends on the blessings of the company's management.

Antimonopoly legislation

Lack of competition leads to negative consequences in society:

  1. ineffective resource spending;
  2. Product deficit;
  3. unfair income distribution;
  4. The absence of an incentive to develop new technologies.

Therefore, governments are trying Limit the appearance of monopoly . Special state authorities monitor the level of competition in the market, control prices, prevent the dependence of small firms from large players.

Antimonopoly legislation exists in most countries of the world. It protects the interests of consumers and contributes to economic prosperity.

Afterword

The desire to fully control the market originated from the strongest representatives of humanity at the same time with the advent of exchange and trade. Even at the dawn of the development of society, it became clear that to increase his own income is the easiest way, eliminating competitors, thereby getting full control over prices.

This is the main feature of the monopoly market - competition on it is either in a zero point, or is very low. You can achieve a dominant position using both methods of fair competition - the creation of innovative goods, the purchase of patents and illegal ways - collusion, bribery.

With the latter today, antitrust legislation is actively fighting, which has long brought Axiom: a monopoly is an undesirable phenomenon in an effectively developing economy. Legally limit the activities of the largest players all civilized countries in the world.

At the same time, the very state can maintain and even create natural monopolies. Their task is to develop strategically important industry for the country, as well as monitor the price level in socially significant areas.

Sources

  • https://zen.yandex.ru/media/propromotion/monopoliia-chto-eto-takoe-prostymi-slovami-5da07969f557d000ae05a957
  • https://w.histrf.ru/articles/article/show/monopoliia.
  • https://myroble.ru/monopoly/
  • https://ktonanovenkoogo.ru/voprosy-i-otvety/monopoliya-chto-ehto-takoe-vidy-formy-primery-istori.html
  • https://investments.academic.ru/1180/%D0%9C%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%8F.
  • https://journal.open-broker.ru/other/monopoliya/
  • https://zen.yandex.ru/media/elenbernes/istoriia-vozniknoveniia-igry-monopoliia-5f4e6c4996ed637c7173df41
  • https://1412.slovaronline.com/312-%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B8%D1%8F.

Today we will talk simple words about what a monopoly is and what is the essence of it. In the economy, the idea of ​​monopoly is important when learning management structures. In traditional economic analysis, there are four main types of market structures: perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly and monopoly.

Monopoly: what is such simple words

Monopoly is a market structure that is characterized by one seller, which sells a unique product with a restriction of new firms to the market. Simply put, a monopoly is a form of a market where there is one seller selling a certain product for which there are no close substitutes. But there is also monopolistic Competition is It happens when there are many sellers in the industry or many close substitutes for produced goods.

What is monopoly

Consider the question of what a monopoly is and what is its characteristic features. "Mono" means a unit, and "poly" means the seller. Thus, the monopoly refers to a market situation in which there is only one seller of a particular product.

This means that the company itself is a branch, and its product has no close replacement. The monopolist is not concerned about the reaction of competing parties, since he has no competitors. Thus, the demand curve facing a monopoly group coincides with the industry's demand curve.

Monopoly: what is such simple words

Can there be a complete monopoly in the real commercial world? Some economists believe that, supporting some entrance barriers, the firm can act as the sole seller of the product in a particular industry.

Others believe that all products compete for a limited consumer budget. For example, in the case of development and creation of website sites It is impossible to become a monopolist, since there is a huge set of proposals on this issue.

What is the essence of monopoly

To better understand what the essence of the monopoly should be transferred to the key features of the monopoly market. When monopoly, the company fully controls the delivery of the product. There is one seller or a manufacturer of a particular product, and there is no difference between the company and the industry. The demand curve on the monopoly market has a slope down, which means that the firm can get more profit only by increasing sales, which are possible due to the reduction in the product price.

Monopoly: what is such simple words

The monopolist is the only seller of a specific product. Therefore, if you think to develop your project on Business ideas 2020 , the monopolist you can hardly be able to. Therefore, if the monopolist should receive super-profile in the long run, there must be certain barriers to the entry of new firms in the industry.

Such barriers may relate to any force that prevents the penetration of competing companies (competing producers) to the industry. Such barriers to monopolist against the invasion of other firms using Business ideas for women Or men can be both natural and artificial (legal). In fact, the input barrier can take various forms.

What applies to natural monopolies

Next, consider what applies to natural monopolies and what is their essence. Natural prerogative arises when one company supplies a certain product or service without any competition due to large barriers to the entrance.

Monopoly: what is such simple words

Under the word, the product can be understood not only the material object. These can be services such as Seo promotion of the online store website or stakes and documents, etc. These entry barriers may include high initial costs, high constant costs, difficulties in obtaining the necessary raw materials and much more.

In other words, one company controls the market due to a unique product, production or market conditions. It happens naturally, without a collusion or dishonest game. We advise you to learn about the basic rules. Business doing business in Russia To better figure out this topic. The natural monopolist is less concerned about the new market participants who can undermine his power. Companies that consider the possibility of entering the market know that they will not be able to compete at low costs.

Monopoly: what is such simple words

Typically, natural monopolies operate in industries where advanced technologies and / or raw materials are required for work. Although natural prerogatives are faced with high fixed production costs, the average costs are reduced to such an extent that the demand curve crosses the average cost curve. Typical examples are companies engaged in the production and distribution of energy, water distribution, public transport, telecommunications and mail.

What is a monopoly of the state

Now pay attention and tell about what is a monopoly of the state and what it applies. In the economy, it is one of the forms of monopoly, in which the government or state corporation is the only supplier of certain goods or services and competition is prohibited by law.

Government monopoly can be managed by any level - federal, regional, local. It aims to implement goods of mass consumption. For the most part, the state prerogative applies to: media, education, alcohol, tobacco, banking, etc.

Monopoly: what is such simple words

In the Scandinavian countries, some products that are considered "harmful" extend through the state prerogative. For example, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, state-owned companies have privileges for the sale of alcoholic beverages. Casino and other gambling institutions can also be monopolized. In Finland, her peculiar corporate identity is State monopoly on the operation of slot machines.

In conclusion, once again let's say about the distinctive features of the monopoly market:

  • One manufacturer or seller;
  • Lack of close substitutes;
  • Absolute control over the market proposal;
  • Lack of competitive advertising;
  • Equilibrium firms and industries.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Absolute Monopoly (Absolute Monopoly) is The situation in the market in which the only one acts in the market organization providing society with the necessary products, any manifestation of rivalry is completely excluded.

Absolute monopoly

Pure Monopoly (Absolute Monopoly) - This is a position in the market for goods and services, characterized by the presence of only one seller of this type. Product or services.

Russian fleet

State Monopoly (State Monopoly - this is monopoly states on the production and implementation of goods of mass consumption (tobacco, salt, etc.). She can be complete if State Monopolizes and production and product sales, or partial, if only production is monopolized or sales. It is not applied in all states (for example, it is not in the UK). There is in Italy (on tobacco, matches, beer, alcohol), Japan (salt, tobacco, alcohol, opium), Germany (Wine).

Grain mining as a subject of state monopoly

Capitalist Monopolies (Capitalist Monopolies) - this is large economic associations of enterprises (cartels, syndicates, trusts, concerns, etc.) who are in private property (individual, group or joint-stock) and control over industries, markets and economies based on a high degree of production and capital concentration in order to establish Monopoly Price and extracting monopoly profits. The dominion in the economy serves as the basis of the influence that has all the lives of the life of capitalist countries.

gold mining

Natural Monopoly (Natural Monopoly) - this is the state of the commodity market in which the satisfaction of demand is more efficient in the absence Competition Due to the technological features of production due to a significant decrease in production costs per unit of product as the production volume increases, and the goods produced by the subjects of a natural monopolist cannot be replaced in consumption by other goods, in connection with the demand in this market for goods produced subjects of a natural monopolist, to a lesser extent depends on the change of it Prices than demand On other types of goods.

Energy are natural monopolists

Economic monopoly ( Economic Monopoly) is The monopoly appearance of which is due to economic reasons, it develops on the basis of the patterns of economic development. We are talking about entrepreneurs who managed to conquer the monopoly position in the market.

The largest Russian airline

Administrative monopoly ( Administrative Monopoly) is The monopoly that arises due to the actions of state bodies. On the one hand, this is the provision of exclusive rights to individual firms to fulfill a certain kind of activity. On the other hand, these are organizational structures for state enterprises When they combine and obey different chapters, ministries, associations.

Monopoly for sale of drugs

Legal Monopoly (Legal Monopoly) - this is Monopoly, giving an exceptional right to anything arising on the legitimate basis. The legal monopoly may be due to a patent system, copyright, commodity (trade) brands and other things.

Legal monopolies

Economic Monopolist (Economic Monopolies) - this is Association created for the sake of obtaining monopolistic benefits. These monopolists intentionally change the structure of the market.

Union of machine builders

Natural Monopoly (Natural Monopoly) - this is Monopoly, which arose as a result of the presence of unique natural phenomena (climate, natural fossils, rarity of certain raw materials, location).

Soline submarines

The history of the emergence and development of monopolies in Russia

The development of monopolists in the Russian Federation was peculiar. The first monopolist was formed in the 1980s of the 19th century (a union of rail manufacturers, etc.). The originality of development was in the immediate intervention of state bodies in the creation and activities of monopolists in Industries who provided the needs of state farm, or those who had particular importance in its system (metallurgy, transport, engineering, oil and sugar industry). This led to the early emergence of state-monopolistic trends. In the 80-90 years, at least 50 different Unions and agreements B. Industry and water transport.

Syndicate ExvagonT.

В Russian Federation The first industrial syndicate appeared in St. Petersburg with the participation of German businessmen in 1886, when six firms for the production of nails and wire were united. In 1903, this was already a syndicate "nail", which controlled 87% of all the production of nails. In 1887, sugar syndicate arises, which by the beginning of the 1890s. Combined 90% of all plants (203 of 224).

Sahara production

In 1902, the largest syndicate of "sold", uniting the metallurgical plants. In 1906, the appearance of the syndicate "Thought" caused a crisis in the coal market, since the policy of reducing production volumes was dangerous for the entire farm, depending very much from this fuel. In 1907, a syndicate "Roofing" appeared, which combined the roofing iron producers. In 1908, a syndicate "Copper" was formed, which controlled 94% of the production of this metal. In 1904, the Syndicate "Production" was started, which controlled 97% of all orders for railway cars.

coal <a href =Industry 19th century "SRC =" / Pictures / Investments / IMG1959055_ugolnaya_promyishlennost_19_vek.jpg "Style =" Width: 999px; Height: 757px; "Title =" Coal Industry of the 19th Century "/>

Monopolistic concentration occurred in banking. Accelerating impact on the monopolization process provided capital . Until the beginning of the 20th century, the role of monopolists in the economy was not large. The decisive impact on their development was provided by the economic crisis of 1900-1903. Monopolist gradually covered the most important Industries Industry And most often formed in the form of cartels and syndicates, in which sales was monopolized while maintaining their participants in production and financial independence.

Tobacco Monopoly 19th Century

I. Trust Trustovsky type (partnership "Br.N Obel", thread trust and others). The lack of legislative and administrative regulations governing the procedure for the design and activities of monopolists made it possible to use the legislation against them formally forbidden the activities of monopolists. This led to the spread of officially non-registered monopolists, some of which, however, acted with the consent and with direct support of the government (Zappravozozoz, "prisonership monopolist).

The monopolist developed in the sale of goods of folk persecution (food industry).

Tea office 19th century

The illegal position created the inconvenience to the restriction of commercial and legal activities and therefore they strive to legal legalization using the permitted forms of industrial associations of enterprises. Many large syndicates are "selling", "Thinking", "Production", "Roofing", " copper "," Wire ", growth, etc. - in form were joint-stock enterprises, the actual goals and activities of which were determined by special segal counterparty treaties.

Fabric production

Often the same Enterprises Participated simultaneously in several agreements. In the period of industrial lift 1910-1914g. There was a further increase in monopolists. The number of trading and industrial cartels and syndicates amounted to 150-200.

Thus mined <a href =Oil earlier "SRC =" / Pictures / Investments / IMG1959059_tak_dobyivali_neft_ranshe.jpg "Style =" Width: 999px; Height: 824px; "title =" so mined oil before "/>

Several tens of them were in transport. In the bank monopolist, many largest banks turned into, whose penetration into industry, along with processes concentration and combination of production contributed to the strengthening and development of trusts, Concern . Level of concentration Sales And the production of monopolists was very uneven. In some sectors of the national economy, such as metallurgy, transport, engineering, oil and coal mining, the sugar production of the monopolist concentrated the bulk of production and Sales And almost feverly dominated the market, in others (metalworking, light and food industry) - the level of monopolization was low.

First weaving factories

During World War I, 1914-1918, the activities of a number of local monopolists stopped, but in general war Increased the number of monopolists and their power. There were the largest Concerns The second, Putututov-Stakhev, Batolin, Br. Ryabushinsky.

Concern Ryabushkin

The monopolist associated with military production was especially developed. Russian monopolistic capitalism existed on the basis of splicing monopolists with government agencies, as well as in the form of "forced trusts" on the initiative and with the participation of the government ( Companies Vankov, Ipatiev, Kievskaya Firm Production of barbed wire, etc.). The monopolist was eliminated as a result of the October Revolution during the nationalization of industry and banks. The Soviet state partially used the accounting and distribution bodies of monopolists in the creation of the management bodies of the national economy. During the transition Russian Federation A monopolist and problems associated with them again arose to the market.

All concerns were destroyed after the October Revolution

Characteristics of monopoly

There are two approaches to the concept of a monopoly. First, the monopoly can be viewed as a type of organization. It is a major association of enterprises, which occupies a leading position in a certain branch of the economy or in several industries in a country or in the world as a whole. Usually a monopoly is associated with large and well-known world companies, although they can keep a minor part of the market.

Monopoly Regulation Scheme State Structures

But there may be another interpretation of the concept of a monopoly - this is the economic behavior of the company. A situation is possible on the market when buyers are opposed to an entrepreneur monopolist, which produces the bulk of products of a certain species. In this case, the monopoly may be relatively small in size and on the contrary, a large company may not be a monopoly if its share in this market is small.

Small business support

Turning to the monopolist as the type of economic structure of the market, it should be considered as a certain type of economic relations, which makes it possible to dictate its conditions on the market of a particular product.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The monopoly suggests that there is only one manufacturer in the industry, which fully controls the volume of product supply.

This allows it to set the price that will bring maximum profits.

The degree of use of monopoly authorities In the establishment of the price will depend on the presence of close substitutes of the product. If the product is unique, the buyer is forced to pay the appointed price or refuse to buy.

Alrosa Diamond Monopolist of Russia

Monopolist's company usually has a higher profit That, naturally, attracts in the industry of other manufacturers. In the case of a pure monopolist, obstacles to the industry are large enough, and it practically blocks the penetration of competitors to the monopolized market. These are really significant obstacles on the path of possible competitors of monopolists.

State and capitalist monopolies

Monopoly is the exclusive right of activity in any field of activity. The owner of this right distinguishes monopolist state and capitalist. State monopolists are called monopolist owned by the state. Arise as a result of the construction of state-owned enterprises (military industry, new or capital-intensive industries) or Nationalization individual enterprises, industries and transport.

State monopolies

The state monopoly is a monopoly, created in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, which determines the commodity borders of the monopoly market, the subject of the monopolist (monopoly), forms of control and regulation of its activities, as well as the competence of the controller.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

State monopolist is introduced by the state in order to ensure public interests. The introduction of the state monopolist is exceptional and is essentially established by law limiting the principle of freedom of economic activity.

Oilders are natural monopolists

Currently, there are several state monopolists. So, in accordance with Art. 4 federal law RF of April 26, 1995 "On Amendments and Additions to law RSFSR "On the Central Bank of the RSFSR (Russian Central Bank)" " Bank of Russia Monopoloily carries out cash emissions of cash of money And organizes their appeal.

Export Icres

The state monopoly for exports and imports of certain types of goods is provided by Art. 17 of the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of October 13, 1995 "On State Regulation of Foreign Trade Activities". It is noted that the lists of certain types of goods, on export or import which establishes the state monopoly, are determined by federal laws. The state monopoly in such cases is carried out on the basis of licensing relevant activities. Licenses for this activity are issued by the IVTU of the Russian Federation exclusively to state unitary enterprises. Transactions in Exporting or Import Separate types of goods committed in violation of state mono-polysia are insignificant.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Monopolist Capitalist - business associations of enterprises carrying out the control Over the markets through the concentration of material and financial resources, scientific and technical capacity in order to extract monopolized profits. Installing monopoly prices, affecting the formation of reproduction proportions. Capitalist monopolist arose based on the concentration of production and Capital .

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The history of capitalist monopolists is inextricably linked with the development of those Processes which at each stage accelerated the growth of the monopolization of the economy, gave it new forms. Among the most important of these include: a growth of joint-stock ownership, a new role banks and the development of a system of participation, monopolistic mergers as a way to centralize capital, evolution of forms of monopolistic associations of enterprises and the latest forms of trusts. Each of these processes has independent importance in the development of modern capitalism. And at the same time, each of them accelerated the development of the monopolization of the economy. Capitalist monopolists include:

- cartel;

Work cartels for gold mining

- syndicate;

Syndicate for grape and giving wine

- Trust;

Transport Trust

- Concern.

Concern Adidas

Cartel - Soyuz several enterprises in one industry in which its participants retain their property for funds and production products, and the created trade subjects themselves sell on the market; They agree on the quota - the share of everyone in general Release products, sales prices, market distribution, etc.

Combining the cartel type

SYNDICAT - Association of enterprises of a number of enterprises manufacturing homogeneous products; For participants of the trust, property is maintained for material management conditions, and finished products come true as a common heritage through the office created for this.

Trest - Monopoly, which creates a joint property of the group Businessmen on the means of production and finished products.

Excellent Trust

Concern - Union of formally independent enterprises (usually from different industries, trade, transport and banks ), in which the head organization organizes financial (monetary) the control For all participants.

Renault concern

Types of monopoly

In modern life, various types of monopolists are considered. The term monopoly means such enterprises and firms, the scale of activity of which covers most of the country's market. They receive the priority right to establish prices for certain types of goods and services, make it possible to suppress or attach minor organizations.

The only company monopolist

There are different types of monopolists that can be classified into three main:

- Natural;

Russian Post as an administrative monopolist

- administrative;

Leader of production

- Economic.

Specific types of monopolists can be distinguished by grouped them according to a specific classification feature. For example, depending on the scale of the impact on the country's economy, it happens:

Absoed computer monopolist

- absolute;

Pure monopolist in Germany

- Pure monopoly.

B dependence on the nature and causes of the monopolist are divided into:

Legal monopolist among fast food

- legal;

Sberbank legal monopolist

- Natural;

Artificially created monopolist

- artificial.

Natural monopoly

Natural monopoly arises due to objective reasons. It reflects the situation when demand This product is best satisfied with one or more firms. It is based on - features of production and maintenance technologies consumers . Here competition It is impossible or undesirable. An example is the energy supply, telephone services, communication. In these industries there is a limited number, if not the only national enterprise, and therefore, naturally, they occupy a monopoly position in the market.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The main signs of the natural monopolist are the following:

- the activities of the subjects of natural monopolists are more efficient in the absence of competition, which is associated with significant savings on the scale of production and high conditionally constant Costs . Such areas include, for example, transport. Costs on the Delivery the cargo or the transport of one passenger is lower than the more goods or passengers are transported in this direction;

Competition in business

- high market entry barriers, since the fixed costs associated with the construction of such structures as roads, links, so highly that the company such a parallel system performing the same functions (construction of roads and pipeline or gasket of railway canvas is unlikely) can pay off;

Construction of bridges M overpowers 1

- Lowest elasticity of demand, since the demand for products or services produced by the subjects of a natural monopolist, to a lesser extent depends on the price change than the demand for other types of products (services), since they are not possible to replace with other goods. This product satisfies the most important needs of the population or other industries. Such goods include, for example, electricity. If we offer, the rise in prices for cars will force many consumers Refuse to acquire your own car, and they will use public transport, even a significant increase in electricity tariffs is unlikely to lead to a refusal of its consumption, since it is difficult to replace it with an equivalent energy carrier.

Distribution network

There are two types of natural monopolists:

- Natural monopolist. The birth of such monopolists is due to barriers to competition, erected by nature itself. For example, a monopoly can be a company whose geologists found a deposit of unique minerals and which bought the rights to the land plot where this deposit is located. Now no one else uses the field to use: the law protects the rights of the owner, even if it turned out to be a monopoly (which does not exclude the regulatory intervention of the state in the activities of such a monopoly);

Quarry prey diamond

- Technical and economic monopolist. So conventionally, you can call a monopolist, the occurrence of which is dictated by either technical or economic reasons associated with the manifestation of the effect of scale.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Let's say it is technically almost impossible, or rather, extremely irrational, the creation in the city of two sewage networks, gas supply or electricity to apartments. The attempt is not always rational, the cables of two competing telephone firms in the same city, especially since they would still have to constantly access each other's services, when the client of one network would call the client another.

telephone company

The largest large-scale monopolists are usually energy and transport, where the effect of scale is particularly pushing to an increase in the size of the company for the decline in average costs for the production of goods. Really, this manifests itself in the fact that the creation in such industries instead of one largest monopolist firma slightly smaller can lead to an increase in production costs and in the end - not to a decrease, but to increase prices. And in this society, naturally, is not interested.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Russia did not avoid the negative impact of industries - natural monopolists in the market conditions. In the Russian industry there are four thousand enterprises-monopolis and their products are 7% of the total. Of these, natural monopolists - 500.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

With a general reduction in production in the Russian Federation, the demand for products and services of industries - natural monopolists, with the exception of branches of communication, constantly decreased. These industries are extremely capital-intensive, a significant part of their costs is constant. As a result, the share of permanent costs in the price of a unit of products grew. In addition, until recently, the subjects of natural monopolists financed investments largely due to internal sources (investment and stabilization funds, formed at the expense of the initial cost and profit ), which determined excessive load on tariffs.

Administrative monopoly

Administrative monopoly arises due to the actions of state bodies. On the one hand, this is the provision of exclusive rights to individual firms to fulfill a certain kind of activity. On the other hand, these are organizational structures for state-owned enterprises, when they combine and obey different chapters, ministries, associations.

coal mining

Here, as a rule, enterprises of one industry are grouped. They act on the market as one economic entity, and there is no competition between them. The economy of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (CCCP) belonged to the most monopolized in the world. The dominant there was an administrative monopoly, first of all the monopoly of the Ministries and departments. Moreover, there was an absolute monopoly of the state to the company and the management of the economy, which was based on the dominant state ownership of the means of production.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

In other economic literature, the state monopoly is allocated. The existence of state monopolists in the market of specific goods and services is caused by both the natural monopolism of individual state-owned enterprises and government limitations of the influx of new firms in any industry (for example, in the field of export-import operations of strategically important goods, etc.) ..

Production of Ka-60 helicopters at the factory in Kamakh

Unlike a perfect competitor who takes a market price as this from the outside, the monopoly itself determines its prices, based on the volume of market demand and the magnitude of their costs. Market monopolization leads, as a rule, to a relative reduction in production volumes and higher market prices for goods and services sold by monopolist. That is why in all developed countries of the world, the state holds a more or less rigid policy of regulating the activities of monopolists, especially natural, and promoting competition for the market.

Economic monopoly

The economic monopoly is the most common. Its appearance is due to economic reasons, it develops on the basis of the laws of economic development. We are talking about entrepreneurs who managed to conquer the monopoly position in the market. Two ways lead to him:

- the first is to successfully develop an enterprise, a constant increase in its scale by concentrating capital;

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

- The second (faster) is based on the process of centralization of capital, that is, on a voluntary association of enterprises or takeover by the winners of bankrupt. Those or another or with both both, the company reaches such a scale when it starts to dominate the market.

bankrupt E.

On this issue, there are two points of view on this issue of the emergence of monopolists in economic literature. According to the first monopolism, it is interpreted as a random, not peculiar to the market economy. As for another point of view, monopolistic formations are defined as natural. The principle of economic income makes enterprises constantly look for opportunities to increase their profits. One of them, most attractive and reliable, is the creation or achievement of a monopoly position. Other driving force Businessmen In this direction is the law of concentration of production and capital. As you know, the effect of this law is observed at all stages of the development of market relations.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

His propulsion is a competitive struggle. To survive in such a struggle, get big profits, businessmen are forced to introduce new techniques, increase production. At the same time, somewhat larger are separated from the mass of medium and small enterprises. When this happens, the largest businessmen arises an alternative to: or to continue withdrawal of unprofitable competition, or to come to an agreement on the scale of production, prices, sales markets.

Absolute monopoly

The absolute monopolist is characterized by state regulation, all the processes occurring in the market are in authorities .

The absolute monopoly has the following features:

- one manufacturer operates on the market, he independently establishes prices for products that sells, and fully controls all trading activities and market transactions;

Gazpromneft company increases its assets

- If a monopolist with absolute power is operating on the market, other organizations are out of competition: the market access is closed;

- the movement of labor and other resources and factors of production are structured in nature, their mobility is limited;

- production of monopoly is absolutely unique and has no analogues and, moreover, it has trademark ;

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

- With absolute power, the monopolist has the full right to regulate the pricing process. As a result, the cost of a unit of products is exactly as much as it is necessary to fill the loss of unique resources that were used in production.

Pure monopoly

The pure monopoly assumes the presence of a large enterprise, which is concentrated on a certain industry. In this case, the emergence of competitors on the market is almost impossible, and the monopolist fully controls the movement of the goods produced in the market and the price level of it.

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Characteristic features of this situation are: the uniqueness of the goods, the ownership of the main types of raw materials, low average costs, patent rights, special privileges ( Licenses ). Pure monopolist usually occur there, where there are no alternatives to this product or service, there are no close substitutes.

For a clean monopolist, a high level of prices is characterized, the further growth of which is constrained only by the risk of decline in demand.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Clean monopolist include the provision of utilities, gas, water and power supply.

In the case of a pure monopolist seller It has a very high degree of price control. Seller It can act as a state and private adjustable or unregulated monopoly.

Legal monopolies

Legal (legitimate) monopolist are formed on the basis of the laws adopted by the State. These include a number of monopoly associations of enterprises based on patent law. The patent is a testimony issued by the government by the Citizen's government for the right to exclusive use of the invention.

right to use trademark

Validity Patent It is established by national legislation (as a rule for 15-20 years). Owner Patent It has the right to issue permission to use the patented invention to other persons. In this case, it receives a certain proportion of benefits from the use of its invention.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Monopolist arising on the basis of copyright, according to which intelligent owners receive the exclusive right to sell or replicate their works throughout their life or some kind Period .

trademark

Tradingmarks are evidenced about accessories for legal monopolists - special drawings, names, symbols that allow you to identify (identify) a product, service or organization (other persons are prohibited to use registered trademarks).

Artificial monopolies

Under this conditional name, there is a union that has no legal protection from competitors. In order to obtain their own gains, such a monopoly deliberately changes the market structure:

- creates barriers to entering the sectoral market of new firms;

Italian firm monopolist Single rubber supplier on F 1

- limits outsiders (enterprises that have not entered the monopolistic association of enterprises) access to sources of raw materials and Energy ;

- creates very high (compared with new firms) technology level;

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

- achieves greater production efficiency by increasing its scale;

- "scores" new companies well delivered advertising.

The concept of natural monopoly

Under the natural monopolist is understood as the state of the commodity market, in which the satisfaction of demand in this market is more efficient under the conditions of lack of competition due to the technological features of production (due to a significant decrease in production costs per unit of product as part of an increase in production volumes), and goods (services), which are produced by the subjects of natural monopolists, cannot be replaced in consumption by other goods (services), in connection with which the demand for this product market is less dependent on the price changes for these goods (services) than the demand for other goods (services).

Product of potash enterprises

For example, a manganese, which is a product of the prey of the potash enterprise "Uralkali".

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Subject of natural monopoly

Subject of the natural monopolist - a business entity ( entity ) Any form of ownership (monopoly education), which produces or implements goods in the market in a state of natural monopolist.

Using natural springs for the manufacture of electricity

The basis of these definitions laid a structural approach; Competition in some cases can be considered as an inappropriate phenomenon. The subject of the natural monopolist is only yur. face carrying out economic activities. Natural monopoly and state monopoly are different concepts that should not be mixed, since the subject of a natural monopolist can function, based on any form of ownership, and the state monopoly is characterized primarily by the availability of state ownership.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The areas of natural monopolum actors are: transporting black gold and petroleum products by pipelines; transportation of natural and oil gas by pipelines and its distribution; transportation of other substances by pipeline transport; transmission and distribution of electrical energy; use of railways, dispatch services, train stations and other infrastructure facilities that ensure the movement of common rail transport; air traffic control; General Communication.

pipeline

"Sylvinit" and " Uralkali "Are the only manufacturers of potassium in the Russian Federation. Both enterprises are located in the Perm Territory and are developing one field-overhenekam. Moreover, until the mid-1980s, they constituted a single enterprise. Potash fertilizers enjoy in high demand in the world market due to limited offers And in the Russian Federation, 33 percent of world stocks of potash ore are focused.

Uralkali

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

In accordance with the general focus of the introduction of state regulation for the activities of natural monopolists, the responsibilities of the subjects of natural monopolists are established:

- adhere to the established procedure for pricing, standards and safety indicators and product quality, as well as other conditions and rules for the implementation of entrepreneurial activities defined in licenses on the implementation of entrepreneurial activities in the areas of natural monopolists and in adjacent markets;

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

- to conduct separate accounting for each type of activity that is subject to licensing; - to ensure on non-discriminatory conditions the implementation of goods manufactured by them (services) to consumers,

- Do not create obstacles to implement agreements between manufacturers who carry out activities on related markets and consumers;

One of the monopolized fuel venues

- to submit to bodies governing their activities, documents and information necessary for the fulfillment by these authorities, in volume and within the time limits established by the relevant authorities;

Verification of documentation

- to provide officials regulating their activities, access to documents and information necessary for the implementation of these authorities of its powers, as well as objects, equipment, land plots in their property or use.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

In addition, the subjects of natural monopolists cannot do acts that lead or can lead to the impossibility of production (implementation) of goods for which regulation is carried out in accordance with the law, or to replace them with other goods, not the same in consumer characteristics.

Monopoly price

Special attention requires the issue of price politicians monopolistic formations. The latter, as mentioned above, using their monopolistic position, have the ability to affect prices, and sometimes install them. As a result, a new price variety appears - a monopoly price, which is established by the entrepreneur who occupies a monopoly position in the market, and leads to a limitation of competition and violation of the rights of the acquirer.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

This price should be added that this price is designed to receive super-profits, or monopolistic profits. It is in the price that the monopoly position is sold.

Economic jumper

The feature of the monopoly price is that it deliberately deviates from the real market, which is established as a result of the interaction of demand and offers . The monopoly price is upper or lower depending on who forms it is a monopolist or monoponist. In both cases, the latter is ensured by the recent or small manufacturer: first overpays, and the second does not receive the part of the goods properly. Thus, the monopoly price is a certain "tribute", which society is forced to pay those who occupy a monopoly position.

Chart of ineffective monopoly

Different monopoly high and monopoly low prices. The first sets the monopolist, occupied the market, and the acquirer, deprived of alternatives, is forced to put up with it. The second forms a monopolist towards small producers, which also have no choice. Consequently, the monopoly price performs the redistribution of goods between economic entities, but such a redistribution, which is based on non-economic factors. But the essence of the monopoly price is not exhausted, it reflects the economic advantages of large, high-tech production, ensuring the receipt of super-exclusive goods.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The monopoly price is the top price for which the monopolist can sell the product or service and which contains the maximum. However, as experience shows, it is impossible to keep such a price for a long time. Super profits, as a powerful magnet, are attracted to a branch of other businessmen who, as a result, "broke" monopoly.

Mechanism for obtaining a monopoly price

It should be considered that the monopoly can regulate production, but not demand. Even she is forced to take into account the reaction of buyers to increase prices. You can only monopolize the product on which there is an inellistic demand. But in such a situation, the rise in price of products leads to restriction of its consumption.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The monopolist has two possibilities: or apply a small deficit for holding a high price, or increase sales, but already at discounted prices.

Price difference

One of the options for price behavior in oligopolistic markets is "leadership in prices". The existence of several oligopolists would seem to entail a competitive struggle between them. But it turns out that it would lead in the form of price competition only to the general losses. Oligopolists have a common interest to hold the uniform prices and prevent "price wars". This is achieved with the help of a taught contract to take the prices of the leader. The latter is, as a rule, the largest organization that determines the price of a certain product, the remaining organizations take it. Samuelson determines that "companies are silently produce such a line of behavior that excludes acute competition in the price industry."

The degree of price independence

Other options are possible. politicians without excluding direct Agreement between monopolists. The price of natural monopolies is under state control. The government constantly checks prices, establishes limit boundaries, based on the need to ensure a certain level of profitability of the organization, development opportunities, etc.

Demand on the product of a monopolist and a monopoly offer

The company has a monopoly authority when it has the ability to affect the price of its product, changing the amount that it is ready to sell. The degree to which the monopolist can use its monopoly power depends on the presence of close substitutes for its product and its share in this market. Naturally, in order to have a monopoly authority, the company does not need to be a pure monopolist.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Moreover, it is necessary that the demand curve for the company's products was tilted down, and was not horizontal, as for a competitive organization, since otherwise the monopoly will not be able to change the price by changing the number of the product offered.

Monopoly price

In the extreme, the maximum case, the demand curve for goods implemented by a clean monopolist coincides with the inclined down curve of the market demand for the goods sold by a monopolist. Therefore, the monopolist is considered with the reaction of buyers to change the price when sets the price of its product.

The monopolist can establish either the price of its product, or its amount offered for sale for any specific period time. And since he chose the price, the required amount of product is determined by the demand curve. Similarly, if the company - the monopolist will choose the amount of product supplied by it as a set parameter, the price, which consumers will pay for this amount of product, will determine the demand for this product.

Pricing Monopolias

The monopolist, unlike the competitive seller, is not the recipient of the price, and even on the contrary, it appoints the price of the market itself. The monopoly can choose the price that maximizes its profits, and provide the buyers themselves to choose how much to buy this product. Organization decides how many products produce, based on information On demand for her product.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

In the conditions of a monopolized market, there is no proportional dependence between the price and the amount produced. The reason is that the solution of the monopoly in terms of production depends not only on the limit costs, but also on the form of the demand curve. Changes in demand do not lead to proportional changes in prices and suggestions, as happens with the offer curve for the free competition market.

Instead, changes in demand can lead to a change in prices with a constant volume of production, changes in production can occur without changing the price or change can be changed both price and production.

The influence of taxes on the behavior of the monopolist

Because the tax increases the limit flow rate, the MS limit retention curve will move to the left and up to the MC1 position, as shown in the drawing.

The organization will now maximize its profits at the intersection point P1 and Q1.

Influence tax the price and volume of the production of a monopolist: D - demand, MR - limit profit, MS - limiting costs without accounting tax , MS - limit flow with Accounting tax

Tax influence

The monopolist will reduce production and increase the price as a result of the tax administration.

The effect of the tax on the monopoly price depends, thus, from the elasticity of demand: the less elastic demand is, the more monopolist will increase the price after the taxation of the tax.

Monopolistic competition

Monopolistic competition is a common market type, which is closest to perfect competition. The opportunity for a separate company to control the price (market power) is insignificant here.

Note the main features characterizing monopolistic competition:

- there is a relatively large number of small firms on the market;

Cheekold competitor

- these organizations produce a variety of products, and although the goods of each company in something specific, the acquirer can easily find substitute goods and switch their demand for them;

- The introduction of new firms to the industry is not difficult. To open a new vegetable shop, atelier, repair shop, no significant initial capital is required, the effect of scale also does not require large-scale production.

Firm Ribok

The demand for the products of firms operating under monopolistic competition is not absolutely elastic, but its elasticity is high. For example, a sportswear market can be attributed to monopolistic competition. Adherents of the Sneakers of the Ribok organization are ready to pay for its products greater than for sneakers of other firms, the price, however, if the difference in prices is too significant, the buyer will always find analogues of less well-known firms at a lower price. The same refers to products of the cosmetic industry, the production of clothing, drugs, etc.

Competition of powders

The competitiveness of such markets is also very high, which is largely due to the ease of access to the market for new firms. Compare for example x market of washing powders.

Difference between pure monopoly and perfect competition

Imperfect competition exists when two or more sellers, each of which has some control over the price, compete for sales. This happens when control over the price is due to the market share of individual firms. In such markets, each seller produces quite most of the goods to significantly affect the offer, and, consequently, on prices.

Monopolist in the field of digital technology

Monopolistic competition. It is carried out when many sellers compete to sell differentiated goods on the market, where new sellers are possible.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The product of each company trading in the market is an imperfect substitute for the product implemented by other firms.

coffee

The goods of each seller have exceptional qualities and characteristics that serve as some buyers to prefer his product to the product by a competing firm. The product differentiation means that the market that is sold in the market is not standardized. This may occur due to real qualitative differences between the products or due to the intended differences that result from the differences in advertising, prestige Trademark or "imjed" related to the possession of this product.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

There is a relatively large number of sellers on the market, each of which satisfies a small, but not a microscopic share of market demand for the overall type of product implemented by the company and its rivals.

Competitor of dental paste

Sellers in the market are not considered with the reaction of their rivals when they choose what the price of your products or when the benchmarks in the volume of annual sales are chosen.

This feature is a consequence of a relatively large number of sellers in the market with monopolistic competition. i.e. if a separate seller reduces the price, it is likely that sales increase will occur not at the expense of one organization, but at the expense of many. As a result, it is unlikely that some separate competitor will bring enough significant losses of its share in the market due to a decrease in the sale price of some individual company. Consequently, competitors have no reason to respond to a change in their policies, since the decision of one of the firms does not significantly affect their ability to make profits. The organization knows this and, therefore, does not take into account any possible reaction of competitors when choosing its price or sales target.

Unique goods

With monopolistic competition, it is easy to establish a company or leave the market. Profitable Conjuncture In the market with monopolistic competition will attract new sellers. However, the entrance to the market is not so easy as he was with perfect competition, since new sellers often experience difficulties with their new trademarks for customers and services.

Swiss Watches

Consequently, existing organizations with a well-established reputation can maintain their advantage over new manufacturers. Monopolistic competition is similar to the monopolist situation, since individual companies have the ability to control the price of their goods. It is also similar to the perfect competition, since each product is sold by many firms, and there is a free entry and exit on the market.

Monopoly in a market economy

Monopolist, in contrast to competitive markets, suffer fiasco in the effective allocation of resources. Volume Monetary emission Monopolists are less desirable for society, as a result, they set prices exceeding the limit costs. Usually the state responds to a monopolist problem by one of four ways:

Aeroflot Monopolist in the field of air traffic

- trying to turn monopolized industries to more competitive;

- regulates the behavior of monopolists;

- turns some private monopolist to state-owned enterprises.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The market and competition have always been antipodes of monopolism. The market is the only real force that hinders the monopolization of the economy. Where an effective market mechanism existed, the spread of monopolists did not go too far. An equilibrium was established when a monopoly coexisting with competition, retained old and gave rise to new forms of competitive struggle.

But ultimately, in most countries with developed market systems, the market balance and monopolists turned out to be unstable and caused the need for an antimonopoly policy aimed at protecting competition. Thanks to this, large organizations that can suppress any competitive sprouts often prefer to refrain from monopolized policies.

Foreign Economic Policy

While there are monopoly markets, they can not be left without state control. Thus, the elasticity of demand becomes in this situation the only factor, but not always sufficient, limiting monopoly behavior. For this purpose, antitrust policy is carried out. You can select two directions. The first includes forms and methods of regulation, the purpose of which is to liberalize markets. Without affecting the monopoly as such, they are aimed at making monopolistic behavior unprofitable. This includes measures to reduce customs tariffs, quantitative restrictions, improving the investment climate, supporting small businesses.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The second direction combines the measures of direct impact on the monopoly. In particular, these are financial sanctions, in case of violation of the antimonopoly legislation , Up to the partition of the company on the part. Antitrust regulation is not limited to some time frame, but is a constant state policy.

Effect scale monopoly

Highly efficient low-cost production is achieved in the conditions of the largest possible production due to market monopolization. Such a monopoly is usually called a "natural monopolist". i.e., the industry in which long-term average consumption is minimal, if only one organization serves the entire market.

gas production

For example: mining and distribution of natural gas:

- need to master deposits;

Mastering deposits

- construction of main gas pipelines;

petroleum

- local distribution networks, etc.).

New competitors are extremely difficult to enter this industry, as it requires large capital investments.

The dominant company, having lower production costs in a time to reduce the price of products to destroy the competitor.

Champagne trademark

In conditions when monopoly competitors are artificially allowed to market, the monopolist can without losing the income and market share to artificially deter less affects sales volumes. This leads to the ineffectiveness of the distribution of resources "net loss of society, when significantly less than the product is produced and for more prices than consumers could have at this level of development in a more competitive environment. In the free economy, the super-profits of monopolists would attract new investors and competitors to repeat the success of the monopoly.

Monopolies in the labor market

An example of a monopolist on the labor market can also serve as some sectoral trade unions, and unions In enterprises, often nominated those who are not necessary for the employer and not necessary to employees requirements. This leads to the closure of enterprises and dismissal. The monopolist of this species is also not bypass without violence as state and individual, expressed in legislative privileges Trade unions In enterprises that undertake all employees to join the trade union and pay contributions. For the sake of fulfilling their requirements, trade unions often apply violence against those who want to work on conditions that are not arranged members of the trade union, or not agree with their financial or political requirements.

Trade unions of Russia

The monopolist, arising without violence and without the participation of the state, is usually a consequence of the effectiveness of the monopoly compared to existing competitors, or they are naturally losing their dominant position. Practice shows that in some cases a monopoly occurs as the natural reaction of consumers to the useful properties of goods and / or lower costs of competitors. Each stable monopoly, which arose without violence (including the state), introduced revolutionary innovations, which allowed it to win a competitive struggle, increasing the share of both the buying and re-equipment of the production of competitors and due to the growth of its own production facilities.

Antimonopoly policy in Russia

The problem of the need for state regulation of natural monopolists was aware of the authorities only by 1994, when the rise in prices for the products they produced had already had a significant impact on the undermining of the economy. At the same time, the reform wing of the government began to pay more attention to the problems of regulating natural monopolists not so much due to the need to stop the price increase in the respective industries or to ensure the use of the cost of the price mechanism for macroeconomic policies, and first of all seeking to limit the circle of regulated prices.

Antimonopoly Committee of the Russian Federation

The first draft of the Law "On Natural Monopolists" was prepared by employees of the Russian Privatization Center on behalf of the RF GKAP in early 1994. After that, the project was refined by Russian and foreign experts and was agreed with industry ministries and companies (Ministry of Communications, MPS, Ministry of Transport, Minatom, Minnac, RAO Gazprom, RAO UES of the Russian Federation, etc.). Many sectoral ministries acted against the project, but GKAP and the Ministry of Economy managed to overcome their resistance. Already in August, the Government sent a draft law to the State Duma agreed with all interested ministries.

State Duma of Russia

The first reading of the law in the State Duma (January 1995) did not cause long discussions. The main problems arose in parliamentary hearings and at meetings in the Committees of the State Duma, where representatives of the industries once again made attempts to change the content or even prevent the project acceptance. Numerous questions were discussed: the legality of the provision of regulatory authorities to control the investment activity of companies; On the control boundaries - the legality of regulating activities that do not belong to natural monopolists, but are associated with regulated activities; On the possibility of maintaining regulatory functions from industry ministries, etc.

FAS Russia

In 2004, a federal antimonopal curz of the regulation of natural monopolists was created:

- in the fuel and energy complex;

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

- Federal Service for the Regulation of Natural Monopolists in Transport;

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

- Federal Service for the Regulation of Natural Monopolists in Communication.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Special attention was paid to the financial indicators of the gas industry, the possibility of improving the state of the state budget as a result of an increase in the taxation of RAO Gazprom and the abolition of privileges for the formation of extrabudgetary fund, etc.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

According to the Law "On Natural Monopolists", the regulation sphere includes transportation Black gold and petroleum products on main pipelines, gas transportation on pipelines, electric and heat transfer services, rail transportation, transport terminal services, ports and airports, public and postal services.

The main regulatory methods were: price regulation, that is, direct determination of prices for widespread goods or the appointment of their limit level.

Regulation of the Antimonopod Prices Committee of Products s

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Defining consumers for mandatory maintenance or establishing the minimum level of them. Regulatory authorities are also charged to control the various types of activities of the subjects of natural monopolists, including transactions for the acquisition of property rights, large investment projects, selling and renting property.

International monopolies

During the XIX century, the capitalist production method quickly spread throughout the globe. Even at the beginning of the 70s of the last century, the oldest bourgeois country of Britain produced more fabrics, paid more cast iron, mined more coal than the United States of America, Republic of Germany , France, Italy, Russia and Japan, taken together. Britain Published the championship in the world index of industrial production and a purely monopoly in the global market. By the end of the XIX century, the position changed dramatically. In young capitalist countries, has grown its own large industry. In volume Index industrial production United States took the first place in the world, and Federal Republic of Germany First place in Europe. In the east, the indisputable leader is Japan. Despite the obstacles created through the rotting royal regime, Russia quickly went on the path of industrial development. As a result of industrial growth of young capitalist countries United Kingdom Lost the industrial championship and monopoly position in the global market.

Achievements of Japan in the development of computer technology

The economic basis for the emergence and development of international monopolists is a high degree of cooperation between capitalist production and the internationalization of economic life.

In the black metallurgy of the United States of America, eight monopolists dominate, under the control of which were 84% of the total Production capacity steel countries; Of these, the two largest American steel trusts and the Bethlehem Steel Corporation have 51% of the total Production capacity . The oldest monopolist of the United States is the oil trust standard Oil.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Three companies have crucial importance in the automotive industry: General Motors,

America's largest car giant

Ford,

Car Ford

Craisler.

American automotive right

In the electrical industry, the dominant position occupy two organizations: General Electric and Westing. The chemical industry is controlled by the concern Dupont de Nemur, aluminum concern Mellon.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The overwhelming part of the productive capacity and sales organizations of the Swiss Food Concern Nestle is posted in other countries. Only 2-3% of the total turnover falls on Switzerland.

International Monopolist Baby Nursing

In the UK, the role of monopolistic trusts has especially increased after the First World War War When there were carious associations of enterprises in the textile and coal industry, in black Metallurgy and in a number of new industries. English Chemical Trust controls about nine tenths of all products of major chemistry, about two fifth of all dyes products and almost all nitrogen production in the country. It is closely associated with the most important branches of the English industry and especially with military concerns.

Anglo-Dutch Chemical and Food Concern "Yunilever" occupies a dominant place in the market

International Monopolist JPG.

In the Republic of Germany, the cartels were widespread from the end of the last century. In the period between two world combat actions in the country's economy, steel trusts were dominant (Ferreynigte Stampetka), which had about 200 thousand workers and employees, a chemical trust (Internssen-Hemeyeinshaft Farbenindusty) with 100 thousand workers and employees, a monopolist of the coal industry, a worshipers of krupp, electrical engineering Concern Universal company.

Concern Volkswagen released a new car

Capitalistic industrialization Japan was carried out in the period when in Western Europe And the United States has already established industrial capitalism . Dominant position among monopoly enterprises Japan Two largest monopolistic financial trusts - Mitsui and Mitsubishi won.

Mitsui concern was subordinate to the total of 120 companies with a capital of about 1.6 billion yen. Thus, in the hands of the Mitsui concern was concentrated about 15 percent Capital of all companies in Japan.

Japanese giant

The Mitsubishi Concern also included oil firms, the organization of the glass industry, firms of warehouse enterprises, trade organizations, insurance firms, organization for the operation of plantations (breeding of natural rubber), and the capital of each industry was about 10 million yen.

The most important feature of modern methods of struggle for the economic section of the capitalist part of the world is the device of joint ventures in the overall ownership of monopolies of various countries, refers to the number of forms of the economic section of the capitalist part of the world between monopolists characteristic of the modern period of the economic section.

Concern Phillips.

The Belgian Electrotechnical Concern Philips and Luxembourg Arbeed belonged to the number of similar monopolists.

Later, partners created their branches in the UK, Italy , Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland and Belgium. Thus, this is a new powerful breakthrough on the global market of competing partners, a new round of international capital movement.

Clause by Torshchiba

Another famous example of creating joint is the creation in 1985 Corporation "Westing Office" ( USA ) and the Japanese organization "TOSHIBA" of the joint firm "TVEK" with headquarters in USA .

Joint venture Mobile-Oil

Among modern monopolistic unions of this type are available. contracts With a large number of participants. An example is an agreement on the construction of an oil pipeline, which is designed to spend from Marseille through Basel and Strasbourg to Karlsruhe. 19 concerns of various countries participate in this union, including the English-Dutch "Royal Dutch-Shell", English "British Petroleum", American Esso, Mobil-Oil, Caltex, French Petrofin and Four West German concern.

Joint Enterprise British Petrolium

Capitalistic industrialization of the world played a big role in the development of the economy of the Russian Federation. He served to develop their own industrial enterprises.

The benefits and harm of monopolies

In general, it is difficult to talk about any public benefit, brought by monopolists. However, it is impossible to completely do without monopolists - natural monopolist is almost indispensable, because Features of the factors used by them do not allow the presence of more than one owner, or the limited resources leads to the unification of enterprises of their owners. But even in this case, the lack of competition shares development at a long time. Although the competitive, and the monopolistic market has disadvantages, as a rule, the competitive market seeks higher results in the development of the relevant industry in the long term.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

The monopoly of the economy is a serious obstacle to the development of the market, for which monopolistic competition is more characteristic. She assumes mixing monopolist and competition. Monopolistic competition presents such The situation is in the market When a significant number of small manufacturers offers similar, but not identical products. Each enterprise has a relatively small market share, therefore it has limited control over the market price. The presence of a large number of enterprises ensures that the secret conspiracy, coordinated actions of enterprises in order to limit the volume of production and increase prices is almost impossible.

Monopoly prices

The monopolist limits the production of production and establish higher prices due to their monopoly position in the market, which causes an irrational distribution of resources and causes an increase in income inequality. Monopoly reduces the vital population. Monopolist firms are not always useful to ensure their ability to provide scientific and technological progress ( scientific and technological progress ). Monopolist do not have sufficient incentives to improve efficiency due to scientific and technical progress because there is no competition.

Monopoly (Monopoly) is

Monopoly leads to inefficiency, when instead of production at the lowest possible level of limiting costs, due to the lack of incentives, the monopoly begins to act worse than the competitive organization could act.

Sources and links

YouCapital.ru - stock market

ACADEMIC.RU - Encyclopedic Dictionary of Economics and Law

Ecopos.ru - Higher School of Economist

Ru.Wikipedia.org - Wikipedia

E-NG.RU - Big Library

0CK.ru - Central Scientific Library

Economy-plus.ru - Economy

Dic.academic - Big Soviet Encyclopedia

sci-lib.com - Monopolist International

yandex.ru - Yandex pictures, video

Encyclopedia Investor . 2013. .

Synonyms

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Watch what is "monopoly" in other dictionaries:

  • MONOPOLY - (Greek: by this. See Previous. Sl.). The exclusive law of the state for the production or sale of any objects, or the provision of the exclusive right to trade to anyone; Capture trade in one hands, as opposed to free ... ... Dictionary of foreign words of the Russian language

  • MONOPOLY - (Monopoly) The market structure in which only one seller is present on the market. You can talk about a natural monopoly if the exclusive position of the monopolist is the result or exceptional right to possess some ... ... Economic Dictionary

  • Monopoly - (Monopoly) The market on which the only seller is valid (manufacturer). In the event that there is a single seller and the only buyer, the situation is called bilateral monopoly (Bilateral Monopoly) (CM. Also: ... ... Business Terms Dictionary

  • MONOPOLY - the exclusive right of production, trade, etc., is becoming a one person who has a certain group of persons or state; In general, the exceptional right to anything. The monopoly is also called a large trial of a crucial role in any area ... ... Financial vocabulary

  • monopoly - Cm … Synonym dictionary

  • Monopoly - (in the economy) [monopoly] The market situation when the company, called the "monopolist", fully controls the proposal of a certain good (product or service) and for the buyer there is no more or less close interchangeable with ... ... Economics and Mathematical Dictionary

  • MONOPOLY - Monopoly, monopolies, wives. (from Greek. Monos one and Poleo sell). Exceptional right to produce or sell something (JUR., ECON.). The foreign trade monopoly is one of the unshakable fundamentals of the Soviet government policy. Insurance ... ... Explanatory Dictionary Ushakov

  • Monopoly - A variant of imperfect competition, in which one large seller is present on the market of goods (services), due to its position capable of affecting prices. Other sellers are much less and not able to influence the market. Private ... ... Banking encyclopedia

  • MONOPOLY - (from Mono ... and Greek Poleo sell), 1) the exclusive right of production, trade, fishery, etc., belonging to one person, a certain group of persons or state; In a broad sense, exclusive right to anything. 2) Monopoly in the field ... ... Modern encyclopedia

  • Monopoly - (Monos Single and Pwlew sell) by the literal sense of expire position in which the only seller of goods is delivered, once there is more or less strong aspir. But in the same position may be ... ... Encyclopedia Brockhaus and Ephron

  • Monopoly - (from Mono ... and Greek Poleo sell), 1) the exclusive right of production, trade, fishery, etc., belonging to one person, a certain group of persons or state; In a broad sense, exclusive right to anything. 2) Monopoly in the field ... ... Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary

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